Major challenges in polar oceans: from biogeochemistry to ecosystems
This course will show the importance of the polar oceans at the global scale. It will describe the main characteristics features of the Arctic and Southern Oceans with highlights on both their common and different mode of functioning. Their importance for the carbon cycle at geological and human time scales will be particularly studied and how polar oceans are highly impacted by acidification. Their responses to global warming will also be explained with the potential impacts on ecosystems and macro and micro nutrient cycles. The role of sea ice on circulation, biogeochemistry and ecosystems will be discussed. The assessment of marine biodiversity (mainly pelagic and top predators) and the consequences of Global change on polar biodiversity will be studied. This will include potential changes on species diversity from invertebrates to top predators, species habitats, trophic webs and species phenology and how it is considered for establishing Marine Protected Areas.